Cancer Surgery

This is a new concept in Oncology. Till now it was thought that cancer surgery can be done only by big mutilating incisions. Now with advanced laparoscopic techniques we can remove cancers from the body with small incisions.

INDICATIONS
• Any patient with potentially resectable lesions
• Is used more commonly in :
• Colorectal cancers
• Gynaecological cancers
• Urological cancers
• Esophageal cancers

We at Cancer Clinic have an extensive experience of minimal access surgery in cancer. We were among the first to start this patient friendly speciality.


ADVANTAGES

• Less pain
• Early return to work
• Cosmetically more acceptable

Long term outcomes

• All trials show similar outcome
• Number of lymph nodes similar
• Margins are not compromised


JUST FOUR SMALL INCISIONS TO REMOVE A LARGE TUMOR !!!





SMALL INCISION!! EARLY RECOVERY !!!


HOW MUCH OF THE LUNG IS REMOVED DURING SURGERY?


Answer :

The most common operation for lung cancer is called a lobectomy. There are 3 lobes, orsegments, of the right lung and two lobes of the left lung. A lobectomy involves removing the tumor along with the lobe of the lung from which the tumor arises. When removal of the entire lung may be recommended. The operation is called a Pneu monectomy. Most patients following minimal access esophagectomy thymectomy & lobectomy can anticipate

 

WHAT CAN BE EXPECTED DURING AND FOLLOWING SURGERY ?


Answer :

Typically, surgery for lung cancer takes approximately two to three hours. At the end of the procedure a drainage tube is placed to drain excess fluid from the site of surgery. This tube is usually removed two to four days after the operation. Patients are generally out of bed and walking the first day after the operation. A nurse instructs patients in deep breathing and coughing exercises, which are important to help prevent infection in the lungs. Most patients remain in the hospital for four to five days.

IS IT POSSIBLE TO BREATHE NORMALLY AFTER PART OF A LUNG IS REMOVED ?


Answer :

Patients with healthy lungs will be able to breathe normally after removal of a lobe, or even an entire lung. Pulmonary function tests are used to determine how much lung canbe removed without limiting your ability to breathe.

WHAT CAN I EXPECT AFTER THE OPERATION ?


Answer :

The purpose of the operation is both to remove the cancer and also to allow patients to eat after the operation. Usually, patients will be allowed to eat within a week after the operation. After this period patients are allowed to eat a modified diet that includes pureed foods and liquids and will progress to a regular diet within weeks after the operation. However, most people will need to eat smaller, more frequent meals. Often, a small tube is placed in the intestines at the conclusion of the operation, which allows for additional nutrition while patients recover from their operation. It is not uncommon for patients to lose some weight after surgery. After several months the lost weight is usually regained.

MINIMALLY INVASIVE THORACIC SURGERY


• Thoracoscopic Lobectomy
• Minimal Access Esophagectomy
• Minimal Access Thymectomy for Myasthenia Gravis

MINIMAL ACCESS SURGERY FOR ESOPHAGEAL CANCER AND HIGH GRADE DYSPLASIA


Answer :

Laparoscopy and thoracoscopy offer an alternative to conventional open surgery for the treatment of early esophageal cancer or dysplasia. Small incisions are place in the chestand abdomen through which telescopes are placed to visualize, manipulate, and remove the esophagus and surrounding lymph nodes.

Most patients following minimal access Esophagectomy Thymectomy & Lobectomy can anticipate :

• Shorter length of stay in comparison with conventional resection.
• Improved breathing function
• Decreasein the pain & need for narcotics in patients
• Decrease length of stay and have also noted


WHAT IS CERVICAL CANCER ?



Answer :

Cervical cancer is cancer that starts in a woman's cervix. The cervix is the lower, thin opening of the uterus that connects the vagina (or birth canal) to the uterus. Cervical cancer grows slowly over time and usually starts with abnormal changes to the cells on the cervix, known as dysplasia.

 

WHO GETS CERVICAL CANCER ?

Any woman can get cervical cancer. It occurs most often in women over 30 years old. Women who are not screened or have not been screened in a long time could have cervical cancer and not know it. Cervical cancer is most often found in women who have not had a Pap test in more than five years or have never had a Pap test. The Pap test is the main screening test for cervical cancer; Pap tests can identify cells on the cervix that may become cancerous.

WHAT CAUSES CERVICAL CANCER ?

 

Nearly all cervical cancer is caused the human papillomavirus (HPV).
HPV types 16 and 18 cause 70% of cervical cancer cases.

Most often HPV will go away on its own, but if it does not, it could cause cervical cancer. Many women will have an HPV infection at some point in their lives, but few will get cervical cancer. In addition to HPV infection, there are other factors that can increase the chances of getting cervical cancer. These include:

• Not having regular Pap tests
• Not following up with your health care provider if you have had a Pap test result that is not normal
• Having HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, or another condition that makes it hard for your body to fight off health problems
• Smoking

WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF CERVICAL CANCER ?

 

Early on, there are usually no symptoms. The longer a person has cervical cancer without treatment, the more likely they will have symptoms. Some of the symptoms of advanced cervical cancer can include:

• Abnormal vaginal bleeding
• Unusually heavy vaginal discharge
• Painful intercourse
• Painful urination
• Bleeding after intercourse, between periods or after a pelvic exam


If you have any of these symptoms, you should talk to your health care provider. These symptoms may be caused by something else; the only way to know for sure is to see your health care provider.

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WHY SHOULD I BE SCREENED FOR CERVICAL CANCER?

 

Screening tests can prevent cervical cancer or find it early, when it is easily treated. In the United States, the Pap test has reduced cervical cancer rates by more than 70%.

WHAT SCREENING TESTS ARE DONE FOR CERVICAL CANCER ?

 

There are two tests that screen for cervical cancer:

Papanicolaou test (known as a Pap test or Pap Smear) : A Pap test looks at cells on the cervix and is often done during a routine pelvic exam. It looks for changes on the cervix that could become cervical cancer if not treated. If your Pap test results show cells that are not normal and may become cancer, your health care provider will contact you for follow-up. There are many reasons why Pap test results might not be normal. It usually does not mean you have cancer.

HPV test : The HPV test looks for the types of the virus that cause most cases of cervical cancer, the high-risk types. The HPV test can be done at the same time as the Pap test using either the same sample of cells or a second sample taken right after the Pap test. A positive result for high-risk HPV means that you should be followed closely to make sure that abnormal cells do not develop.

HOW OFTEN SHOULD A WOMAN BE SCREENED FOR CERVICAL CANCER ?

 

Women should start getting screened for cervical cancer at age 21. Talk with your health care provider about how often you should be screened for cervical cancer. Women who may no longer be having sex or who may feel too old to have a child should still have regular Pap tests. Cervical cancer is most often found in women who have not been screened with the Pap test in more than five years or have never been screened at all. Women who are not screened or have not been screened in a long time could have cervical cancer and not know it.

WHAT CAN I DO TO PREVENT CERVICAL CANCER ?

 

• Get the HPV vaccine. The vaccine protects against the types of HPV that most often cause cervical cancer. For more information about the HPV contact our clinic
• See your health care provider regularly for a Pap test.
• Follow-up with your health care provider if your Pap test results are not normal
• Limit your number of sexual partners
• Use condoms
• Don't smoke or, if you do, quit

WHERE CAN I GO FOR A CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING ?

 

Please enquire at our center. call 9930817901 or visit our website for the address.

WHAT ARE THE STAGES OF CERVICAL CANCER ?


WHAT IS THE TREATMENT FOR CERVICAL CANCER ?

 

In a developed case of cervical cancer, the treatment depends on the stage of cervical cancer.

Stage I � Surgery or Radiation therapy : Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment. This is more than just removal of the uterus and cervix. As shown below it involves removal of the surrounding tissue, upper part of the vagina and the lymph glands draining the uterus.
Nowadays this surgery can be done laparoscopically also. At our center many of the women with cancer cervix have been treated with laparoscopy resulting in minimal scars and better and early rehabilitation.

Stage II and III � Radiation and Chemotherapy : In this stage the patient is treated by Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy often in combination. Nowadays with the advent of newer technologies the side effects of this treatment are very minimal.

STAGE IV : In this advanced stage, only palliative treatment can be offered. This is in form of chemotherapy.


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